The SRI specification "defines a mechanism by which user agents may verify that a fetched resource has been delivered without unexpected manipulation" using a validation scheme and "extending several HTML elements with an integrity attribute that contains a cryptographic hash of the representation of the resource the author expects to load." http://w3c.github.io/webappsec/specs/subresourceintegrity/
The mechanism can also be used for resources loaded through <link> elements.
As far as support in other UAs, Chrome has supported Subresource Integrity since v45, and Firefox has since v43. https://developer.mozilla.org/en/docs/Web/HTML/Element/script#Browser_compatibility
Subresource Integrity is now a final W3C Recommendation https://www.w3.org/TR/SRI/
+1 for this